Nephrology is a branch of medical science which deals with the diseases of kidneys. It deals with the study of the normal working of kidneys as well as its diseases.
The kidney performs many critical functions. Nephrologists maintain and expertise in primary kidney disorders but also the management of the systemic consequences of kidney’s dysfunction. Although the identification, prevention and the management of early kidney disease is a large part of general internal medicine practice. Nephrologists usually called to assist and manage more complex and advanced nephrologic disorders.
Some of the conditions cared by the nephrologists may also include primary kidney disorders such as glomerular diseases, tubulointerstitial kidney diseases, tubular defects, and the effects of toxins on the kidney, including various diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Knowledge of disorders of the kidney vasculature, infections and neoplasms of the kidney, and abnormalities of the kidney, collecting system and bladder are important aspects of nephrology practice. A thorough understanding of the involvement of the kidneys in other systemic diseases is a primary role of nephrologists. The central role of the kidney is to maintain blood pressure, nephrologists also possess expertise in the management of hypertension, particularly when difficult to control. Nephrologists also help in managing the fluid, electrolyte and also acid-base disturbances, particularly those occurring in advanced kidney disease. A major role of nephrology is the oversight of dialysis in patients requiring renal replacement therapy and participation in the kidney transplant process, if indicated.